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互联网技术创新下腾讯公司战略规划探讨

时间:2016-11-15 来源:未知 作者:陈赛楠 本文字数:5794字
  摘 要
  
  纵观当今中国,社会信息消费、移动智能、宽带中国已经成为当今热点和未来几年发展方向。2014 年国内互联网消费规模 2.8 万亿元、电子商务交易额 12 万亿元、互联网行业收入增长 50%;不仅如此,移动互联网技术创新还带来新产品、新业态、新商业模式的出现。互联网公司如何在这样的机遇和挑战面前成功把握住战略方向,是一个严肃而切实的问题。之所选择腾讯公司作为本论文研究对象,因为首先腾讯公司是伴随中国互联网成长起来的第一代国内互联网企业,具有时代意义;其次腾讯公司产品线从 PC 端到移动端,遍布互联网应用服务市场,囊括电子邮箱(E-mail)、搜索引擎、即时通讯、在线游戏、在线广告、电子商务等,且拥有众多明星产品,其中 QQ 活跃账户 8.29亿、微信月活跃用户 4.68 亿,影响着几亿人的交流方式和生活方式,社会影响巨大,具有现实意义。
  
  本论文主要采用案例分析法、实证分析和规范分析相结合法以及比较分析法对互联网行业和腾讯公司从发展战略的角度进行了研究、分析和总结。首先本文分析了腾讯公司的内外部环境,对腾讯公司发展历程进行了回顾;随后介绍了腾讯公司企业战略的特殊性,对当前企业战略进行深入分析,并阐述互联网技术创新对腾讯公司企业发展战略的影响;最后对腾讯公司的企业战略有针对性的提出优化措施。本文希望通过对腾讯公司企业发展战略的梳理,探索互联网在技术创新背景下,企业战略调整的前因后果和其中的规律。
  
  通过分析论证,本论文的得出以下主要结论:(1) 通过对互联网行业进行分析发现,互联网产业链发生变化,互联网企业发展脚步越发成熟,品牌快速迭代,快速失败、廉价失败、包容失败以及对品牌精益求精构成互联网经济的特色,互联网技术发展改变着企业对于人才种类、数量、类型的需求,如何实现精准营销成为互联网时代企业面临的一大课题,互联网经济成为机会经济。(2)通过对互联网企业环境分析发现,国家政策环境大好;互联网经济正加快向传统经济渗透速度,且发展重心从“广泛”向“深入”转换,推动网民生活迈向全面“网络化”;技术环境总体实力继续保持增强态势。(3)通过对腾讯公司的行业环境进行分析发现,腾讯公司需要格外关注手游市场潜在进入者的威胁,需要提高现有产品的稳定性、安全性、方便性、增加明星产品数量,腾讯公司的供应商议价能力较弱,腾讯公司普通的平台使用用户议价能力较弱。(4) 通过分析腾讯公司行业内企业间竞争状况发现,在行业内竞争总体明显呈现跨界性、平台化的等特点的基础上,企业间的竞争已经从点的争夺扩散到面的竞争。(5)通过对腾讯公司内部人才经济技术资源分析发现,在人才领域,面临着公司文化的稀释及对公司现有管理团队执行效力的挑战;在财务方面,2014 年腾讯公司总体经营状况继续保持上升趋势,但企业偿还能力小幅下降;在技术资源领域,腾讯公司的成功依托于背后大量的专利技术和创新,经历从追求数量到注重质量。(6) 通过对腾讯公司内部品牌资源分析发现,核心产品主要是 QQ、QQ 空间、微信、腾讯游戏以及应用宝,且短时间内 QQ 和 QQ 空间用户不会出现大范围的波动,但长期来看用户从 PC 端向移动智能端转移已是大势所趋,另外腾讯公司新秀产品微信面临着如何更好的解决用户社交习惯与商业气氛过浓之间的冲突的挑战等问题,最后产品线呈现多元化的现象,但盈利点主要集中在即时通讯、社区网络、网络游戏几大块上。(7) 通过对腾讯公司企业战略分析发现,首先企业战略呈现出互联网思维,其次当前具体战略措施归纳起来是以开放性积极发展战略为中心,秉承连接性、高效性、竞争性积极发展战略三个基本点,其次腾讯公司拥有品牌优势、渠道优势、盈利模式等战略优势,以及因公司近期密集投资行为所带来的压力和风险、产品商业变现压力、企业应变能力等潜在问题。(8)互联网企业战略的成功实施需要从用户、产品、业务、企业组织结构四个方面入手进行优化和保障。
  
  本论文首次运用互联网技术创新的视角分析互联网企业腾讯公司企业发展战略,是互联网经济学和企业管理学相结合的跨学科的研究成果;本文将互联网技术创新与腾讯公司发展战略相结合进行研究,具有一定的前瞻性和开创性;从互联网技术创新的角度分析总结了一系列影响腾讯公司发展战略的因素与对策,能够为腾讯公司发展战略提供理论指导。
  
  关键词:腾讯公司,互联网,技术创新,发展战略
  
  Abstract
  
  Nowadays in China, SNS (Social Network Site) information consumption, intelligent mobility, Chinanational-wide broadband network have become the hot-spots and directions of current and futuredevelopment. In 2014, the domestic consumption scale is 2.8 trillion Yuan, the Internet e-commercetransactions are 12 trillion Yuan, and the revenue of China Internet industry grew 50%. Not only this, newproducts and new business models are emerging with the innovation in mobile internet area. It poses to bea serious and practical question that how an Internet company find its correct strategic direction whenfacing such opportunities and challenges. There are some underlying reasons to choose Tencent as theresearch object of this thesis. Firstly, it has contemporary significance because Tencent is one of the firstgeneration of companies who see the growth of China Internet. Secondly, it has practical significancebecause of the line-up of Tencent's products. From PC to mobile, Tencent's products spreads every areas inthe Internet application service market, including electronic mail (E-mail), search engines, instantmessaging, online games, online advertising, E-commerce. And Tencent has a lot of star products withenormous user count, such as QQ with 829 million active registered users, Wechat with 468 millionmonthly active users. These products affect hundreds of millions of Chinese communication andlifestyle. The social impact is huge.
  
  This thesis studies, analyses, and summarizes the development strategy of the Internet industry andTencent through use case studies, combined empirical analysis and normative analysis, and comparativeanalysis. Firstly, it analyses the internal and external environment of Tencent, and retrospect on Tencent'shistory. Then, the thesis introduces the particularity of Tencent corporate strategy, deep-dives into thecurrent Tencent corporate strategy, and describes the effects of Internet technology innovation to Tencentcorporate development strategy. Finally, a set of measures to optimize Tencent corporate strategy areproposed. By the study of Tencent corporate development strategy, the thesis aims to find the reason andpattern to effectively adjust the corporate strategy in the context of Internet technology innovation.
  
  By the analysis and argument, this thesis draws the following conclusions: (1) From the dimension ofInternet industry, the industry chain is transforming. The Internet companies are gradually more mature intheir development. The characteristics of Internet Economy are composed by the rapid brand iteration, failfast, fail cheap, inclusive culture and continuous brand refinement. The Internet technology evolutionchanges the enterprise requirement on talents in domains, quantities, and types. It is also a research topicfor Internet companies that how to approach a precise marketing. The Internet Economy is becomingspeculation economy at some extend. (2) From the dimension of the external environment, the domesticpolicies are supportive on Internet companies such as Tencent. Internet industry is accelerating itspenetration on traditional industries, widely and deeply. It helps to reshape the everyday life throughInternet. China's technical competence keeps improving during this evolution. (3) For the dimension ofindustry environment, the finding for Tencent is it should be cautious on the potential competitors in thedomain of mobile gaming. It should improve the stability, security, easy-of-use of its current products,and also cultivate more star products. Beside this, Tencent has strength on the weak bargaining power ofsuppliers and customers. (4) From the dimension of the Internet industry competition, it shows more andmore cross-industry-boundary and platform-focusing. The competition between companies is changingfrom the fighting on some individual product to a line-up of products which unifying end-user platform.(5) From the dimension of enterprise internal resources, Tencent is facing the challenges on companyculture, execution efficiency, financial solvency, quality and quantity of innovations and patents. (6) Fromthe dimension of the brand resource, Tencent's key brands are limited on QQ, QQzone, Wechat, TencentGames and Tencent App Store. The user counts of QQ and QQzone are quite stable and will have littlefluctuation in short time. But in long term, the user moving from PC end to smart mobile device end is thetrend. And even the very promising new comer Wechat is also facing some problem like the conflictbetween user's social networking request and the increasing commercial advertising needs. And althoughTencent's products are expanding on multiple areas, its revenue still comes from limited sources – instantmessaging, social network and network gaming. (7) From the dimension of enterprise strategy of Tencent,it presents the characteristics of Internet thinking model. Its details can be summarized as openness,connecting, efficiency and competiveness. Tencent has its strength in brand, channel, and profit model. Butit also shows some potential challenges and risks on bursting investment activities, commercial liquidationpressures, and enterprise resilience. (8) The successful implementation of the corporate strategy ofInternet companies needs the optimization and assurance from such four aspects as customer, product,service, organizational structure.
  
  The thesis is the first academic attempt to analyze the corporate strategy of the Internet company -Tencent - from the perspective of Internet technology innovation. It can be regarded as a research result ofan interdisciplinary study of Internet economics and business management. It is foreseeing and innovativeby combining the research of Internet technology innovation with the study of Tencent's corporate strategydevelopment. Moreover, the thesis analyses and summarizes a series of factors and countermeasureswhich could affect corporate strategy of Tencent from the angle of Internet technology innovation. It helpsto provide a theoretical guidance for Tencent to develop more effective corporate strategy.
  
  Key words: Tencent; Internet, Technology innovation,corporate development strategy


  目 录
  
  摘 要
  
  ABSTRACT
  
  第一章 导论
  
  1.1 研究背景
  
  1.1.1 政策背景
  
  1.1.2 现实背景
  
  1.2 研究目的和意义
  
  1.2.1 研究目标
  
  1.2.2 研究意义
  
  1.3 国内外研究现状综述
  
  1.3.1 国外研究现状
  
  1.3.2 国内研究现状
  
  1.4 研究方法与研究内容
  
  1.4.1 研究方法
  
  1.4.2 研究内容
  
  1.5 研究思路与研究框架图
  
  第二章 相关概念界定与理论基础
  
  2.1 相关概念界定
  
  2.1.1 企业战略
  
  2.1.2 互联网技术
  
  2.1.3 互联网技术创新
  
  2.2 相关理论基础
  
  2.2.1 行业组织结构理论
  
  2.2.2 企业核心能力理论
  
  2.2.3 战略资源基础论
  
  2.2.4 技术创新理论
  
  2.3 互联网技术创新对互联网企业战略的影响
  
  2.3.1 互联网技术创新对互联网企业外部行业环境的影响
  
  2.3.2 互联网技术创新对互联网企业内部能力和资源的影响
  
  第三章 腾讯公司发展的内外部环境分析
  
  3.1 腾讯公司背景简况
  
  3.2 腾讯公司发展的外部环境分析
  
  3.2.1 腾讯公司宏观环境分析--PEST 模型分析
  
  3.2.2 腾讯公司行业环境分析
  
  3.3 腾讯公司发展的内部资源分析
  
  3.3.1 腾讯公司内部人才资源分析
  
  3.3.2 腾讯公司内部财务资源分析
  
  3.3.3 腾讯公司内部技术资源分析
  
  3.3.4 腾讯公司内部品牌资源分析
  
  第四章 互联网技术创新对腾讯公司发展战略的影响
  
  4.1 腾讯公司企业战略的特殊性
  
  4.1.1 强调创新性思维
  
  4.1.2 重视社会化思维
  
  4.1.3 凸显用户为王思维
  
  4.1.4 推崇平台化思维
  
  4.1.5 侧重专注思维
  
  4.1.6 强调跨界思维
  
  4.2 腾讯公司发展战略历程与各阶段分析--基于互联网技术创新视角
  
  4.2.1 QQ 家族发展壮大期
  
  4.2.2“在线生活战略”实施期
  
  4.2.3 挖掘发展潜力聚焦移动互联网业务期
  
  4.2.4 争夺移动平台入口期
  
  4.3 互联网技术创新对腾讯公司发展战略的影响
  
  4.3.1 互联网技术创新对腾讯公司人才战略的影响
  
  4.3.2 互联网技术创新对腾讯公司产品战略的影响
  
  4.3.3 互联网技术创新对腾讯公司用户战略的影响
  
  4.3.4 互联网技术创新对腾讯公司业务战略的影响
  
  4.4 腾讯公司当前企业战略分析
  
  4.4.1 腾讯公司当前战略分析
  
  4.4.2 战略优势与潜在问题分析
  
  第五章 腾讯公司发展战略优化措施
  
  5.1 战略优化的原则
  
  5.2 战略优化的具体措施
  
  5.2.1 继续贯彻用户为王的思维
  
  5.2.2 创造更多精品优品
  
  5.2.3 延续积极健康的品牌形象
  
  5.2.4 进行积极开放的经营
  
  5.2.5 保证高效的内部组织管理
  
  第六章 总结与展望
  
  6.1 主要研究结论
  
  6.2 研究可能创新点
  
  6.3 研究不足与展望
  
  参考文献
  
  致 谢
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